Greenberg mS (2023-02-15). Handbook of Neurosurgery

The river is frozen for most of the year, with the ice typically breaking up by early to mid-May in the south, and late May-early June in the north. The river discharges more than 325 cubic kilometres (78 cu mi) of water each year, accounting for roughly 11% of the total river flow into the Arctic Ocean. The Mackenzie River has a similar range of fish fauna to the Mississippi River system. The tremendous erosive powers of the Laurentide and its predecessors, at maximum extent, completely buried what is now the Mackenzie watershed under thousands of metres of ice and flattened the eastern portions of the watershed. More than 250 wildlife species, including peregrine falcon, drainage sherborne bald eagle and northern spotted owl are thought to frequent the watershed. Goods shipped there by train and truck are loaded onto barges of the Inuit-owned Northern Transportation Company. A local company will be able to give you expert advice about your plumbing needs. Marking the initial days of the railways in the Indian subcontinent, the Madras Railway Company began to network South India in 1856. The first station was built at Royapuram, which remained the main station at that time.

The first fur trappers were native, but starting in the 1920s increasing numbers of European trappers entered the region. As of 2016, there were an estimated 166 billion barrels of oil reserves in this region. According to the British Columbia Environmental Network, “there is enough agricultural capability in the Peace River Valley to provide vegetables to all of northern Canada”. The valley of the former river is considered to be some of the best northern farmland in Canada, due to the high concentration of minerals found in the soil. Oil was discovered at Norman Wells in the 1920s, beginning a period of industrialization in the Mackenzie valley. During World War II oil pumped in Norman Wells was shipped to Fairbanks, Alaska via the 1,000-kilometre (620 mi) Canol pipeline. Goods are shipped as far as the port of Tuktoyaktuk on the eastern end of the Mackenzie Delta, where they are transferred to oceangoing vessels and delivered to communities along Canada’s Arctic coast and the numerous islands to the north. Oil was initially shipped out by steamboats, supplying mines and towns across the NWT. However, human activities such as oil extraction have threatened water quality in the headwaters of the Mackenzie River.

The pipeline was considered a “fiasco”, going five times over budget and losing as much as 20 percent of the oil due to poor construction. At 1,805,000 km2 (697,000 sq mi), the Mackenzie River drainage basin encompasses nearly 20 percent of Canada. Although the Mackenzie River is wide and deep, navigation is “notoriously difficult” due to the locations of sandbars and shallows changing from year to year. Year round, the Mackenzie’s outflow has a major stabilizing effect in the local climate above the Arctic Ocean with large amounts of warmer fresh water mixing with the cold seawater. Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled the river in the hope it would lead to the Pacific Ocean, but instead reached its mouth on the Arctic Ocean on 14 July 1789. There is a story, likely apocryphal, that he named it “Disappointment River”, but eventually it was named after him. During glaciation the weight of the ice sheet depressed northern Canada’s terrain to such an extent that when the ice retreated, the Mackenzie system was captured to lower elevations in the northwest, establishing the present flow direction to the Arctic. In addition, a warming climate in northern parts of the watershed is melting permafrost and destabilizing soil through erosion.

The Mackenzie River’s watershed is considered one of the largest and most intact ecosystems in North America, especially the northern half. In 1964 the Mackenzie Northern Railway (now a subsidiary of CN) reached the shore of Great Slave Lake, to serve the new Pine Point zinc mine near Hay River. When the ice sheet receded for the last time, it left a 1,100 km (680 mi) long postglacial lake, Lake McConnell, of which Great Bear, Great Slave and Athabasca Lakes are remnants. Blockages are commonly caused by drains collapsing, cracking, scale build up, or tree root penetration. Our drainage experts can clean, clear and unblock even the most stubborn drains in a timely manner to get your drainage system back in working order! Built to last roughly 10-15 years, it needs regular attention to perform at its best and help get you through a typical Birmingham area summer relatively unaffected by the outdoor temperatures and humidity.

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